I Know This Man

My son would probably not have reached his normal adult height if it had not been for the barbacoa burritos at Chella’s Restaurant on Liberty Street in Ann Arbor. I was there with him a lot. Several nights a week. People were friendly there – we were friendly back. I knew the owner, who was often behind the counter. Then one night last week, he showed up on TV.  And I thought to myself, “I know this man.”

Kirk Maxey and Adrian Iraola

Kirk Maxey and Adrian Iraola

His name is Adrian Iraola. He was standing in the middle of my big living room TV screen, and David Muir was saying “Watch as this meeting about inclusion and diversity takes a devastating turn…”

For me, something just snapped when I saw this man being hounded as if he had no right to stand up and make critical comments about the community of Saline Michigan BECAUSE HE CAME HERE FROM MEXICO!! We all came here from somewhere. There are no Americans who were always here from the beginning. The so called indigenous came more than 10,000 years ago by foot and by small boat, and spread across the land. Europeans came in trickles 400 years ago by boat, soon coming in larger numbers and bringing African slaves. Famines hit Ireland and Denmark, and the destitute came then in massive waves in the 1800s. Later influxes came mainly by air, as Hungarians, Estonians, Czechs, and Poles fled revolution and repression in their homelands. The collapse of the Soviet Union brought new surges of Russians and Ukrainians followed by Serbs and Romanians in the aftermath of the wars in the Balkans. These people melded into the mix of English, Irish, Italian, German, Swedish, and Danish who came before them, and they ARE AMERICA.

Adam Uzieblo and Kirk Maxey

Adam and Kirk

Adam Uzieblo was born in Warsaw and has a PhD in organic chemistry. When he came to America in 1981, he was forced to leave his wife and small son behind. He was hired as a synthetic chemist at Cayman Chemical in 1989, and has prepared thousands of complex prostaglandins and biochemicals over his decades long career. His family joined him five years later, and his son is now a skilled vascular surgeon practicing in the Detroit area. Adam is a member of the Board of Directors of Cayman Chemical. #Iknowthisman.

There is a lot to find disgusting about the Trump administration, but nothing compares to their racist, xenophobic paranoia regarding immigrants. These people ARE US – they are the new building blocks of America, fitting neatly into the spaces where those of us with a few or even many generations on US soil already live. The Gestapo wannabes of ICE and the HSA routinely humiliate and degrade anyone foreign as they travel into and out of the US. They abuse US citizens and green card holders based on crude racist stereotypes of skin color, language and ethnicity. It is a complete abandonment of our own human decency. I’m sick to goddamn death of it, and I’m not going to sit still for it a second longer.

Zahra Assar, Kirk Maxey, and Andrei Kornilov

Zahra, Kirk, and Andrei

Zahra Assar was born in Tehran, Iran in 1989, the same year that Adam came to work at Cayman. She has a BS in Chemistry from Sharif University of Technology and a PhD from Michigan State. She came to America in 2012 and joined Cayman in 2017 as a structural biologist while she was still defending her thesis. #Iknowthiswoman. Andrei Kornilov was born in Kiev, Ukraine and earned his PhD in Chemistry at the University of Kiev. He came to America in 1996, and is my coauthor on my most recent publication  #Iknowthisman

Toni and Kirk

Toni and Kirk

This is Toni, a Cherokee woman who manages the Twin Peaks mine near Mount Ida, Arkansas. We share a love of nature, quartz crystals and geology. Our relatives from many generations ago were from the southeastern US, moved westward to Oklahoma and then went their separate ways. #Iknowthiswoman

Cathy and Kirk

Cathy and Kirk

Cathy Miller was born in Taiwan and moved to America when she was 5. She graduated with a degree in Chemistry from the University of Michigan and joined Cayman Chemical in 1994. She has held positions in several departments, and is now part of the ISO-qualified forensics department that handles drugs of abuse. #Iknowthiswoman

In America, we are all immigrants. The only distinction is that some of us came recently and have more obvious traces of our past, like an accent or some unusual holidays or traditions of dress. Those of us who have been here longer need to be as welcoming, respectful, and appreciative of recent immigrants as possible, because they are literally the lifeblood of our country. They truly understand and appreciate freedom and liberty, some after having been deprived of their basic human rights elsewhere. Somewhere within the twisted guts of this foul administration is a perverted goon who thinks up new ways every day to mistreat decent, honest people crossing our borders. He’s the asshole who dreamed up snatching kids away from their parents and locking them in cages. We need to smoke that son of a bitch out and LOCK HIM UP!!!

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17 Questions About Glyphosate

It’s important that as lawyers and special interests create false chemophobic “facts” someone should maintain a good website where those are noted and the actual scientific truth of the matter be stated as clearly and bluntly as possible. No Virginia, glyphosate does not cause cancer.

Thoughtscapism

Many worry about pesticides for health or environmental reasons, and the most common target of general concern is undoubtedly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the famous weedkiller RoundUp. I find that the best thing to do when something worries me, is to
1find out more about it.  I’ve delved into the details behind the 17 most common concerns I’ve encountered. Questions 1-11 are mainly about health, whereas 12-16 focus on environmental aspects, and lastly, 17 delves into the question of the integrity of research. I will do my best to present useful evidence-based resources on all the following topics. If you would like to listen to a summary of this series you can head on over to my guest appearance on the podcast Talking biotech with Kevin Folta – I was very honoured for the opportunity to join his great series.

After receiving valuable feedback from my readers, I decided to break these questions into blog posts of their…

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Putin’s Poisons

Putin Cobra Blog Image Kremlin 2018DECVladimir Putin is the current totalitarian ruler of Russia, which isn’t in itself an historically surprising circumstance. From the Tsars to the Bolsheviks and on through the present, a single despotic person has generally ruled over Russia, and frequently over a large part of the contiguous territories of Europe and Asia. Unlike Stalin, who was an imposing physical person and who murdered wantonly and in massive numbers, Putin is a small, pale, reptilian person who rules and murders much more after the fashion of a snake. There is a certain morbid fascination in watching a current head of state selecting and deploying a range of improbable toxins against a fairly random list of perceived traitors, enemies, journalists and spies. Poisoning is only an attractive option for murder when one wishes to have plausible deniability, yet Putin’s numerous deployments of poisons to date have been a comedy of errors and uncritical thinking, leaving in many cases a trail of tracks leading almost directly to him.

Russia’s brief flirtation with democracy ended in the year 2000 with the sudden resignation of Boris Yeltsin followed by the improbable election of Vladimir Putin with a reported 53% majority of the vote. At this time, the most recent known use of poisoning for assassination by Russian operatives was the 1978 killing of dissident Georgi Markov in London. Markov was jabbed in the thigh with a sophisticated umbrella tip injector that deposited a tiny pellet of the biological toxin ricin resulting in his death 3 days later.

Two years after Putin’s ascension to the Russian presidency, his regime was challenged by the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crises when at least 40 armed Chechen rebels seized several hundred hostages and demanded an end to the war in Chechnya. The Russian security forces responded by pumping an aerosolized solution of the μ opioid receptor agonists fentanyl, and/or carfentanyl into the building’s ventilation system, killing all of the rebels and at least 204 of the hostages. These drugs have been developed as useful anesthetic agents and are potentially reversible, but first responders from the FSB who stormed the theater wearing gas masks did not seem to have remembered to bring any of the lifesaving antagonist naloxone with them, resulting in the high civilian death toll.

Fentanyl and Carfentanil

Yuri Schekochikhin was a 53-year old investigative journalist  who was hospitalized suddenly in 2003 with symptoms of heavy metal poisoning, including a peripheral neuropathy.  He fell ill just a few days before he was scheduled to fly to the United States to discuss a corruption scandal involving Vladimir Putin with the FBI. Since Schekochikhin was treated at the Central Clinical Hospital in Moscow which is tightly controlled by the FSB, there was never a formal autopsy and his family was denied access to his remains. However, the clinical picture is consistent with an acute intoxication by the toxic heavy metal Thallium. From 2003 through 2004, this seems to have been Putin’s choice of poisons, as it was also implicated in the death of his former bodyguard Roman Tsepov in St. Petersburg. The journalist Anna Politkovskaya was also poisoned with a substance in her tea in 2004, which she survived, only to be gunned down in an elevator in 2006. Thallium was not a new or particularly innovative poison, as it had been tried several times in the preceding decades by a number of governments, including the French, Americans, South Africans and Iraq’s Saddam Hussein.

Thallium (2)

However, a new poison emerged that same year in the bitterly contested Ukrainian election contest between pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych, the hand picked favorite of Putin, and Viktor Yuschenko representing the Western-leaning independence parties.

 

Dioxin

Dioxin (2)

The dioxin molecule, pictured above, was already rather infamous following the accidental 1976 industrial release in Seveso, Italy that sickened thousands of people and killed birds and animals. However, sickened is the operative word here, since although dioxin is toxic, it isn’t very lethal. Yushenko’s poisoners did manage to inflict a painful and disfiguring case of chloracne on him, but he survived. He also provided an impressive number of pharmacokinetic samples to the doctors who treated him, allowing them to work out the metabolism and excretion routes of this compound using only a single, inadvertent human test subject. This peculiar and silly choice of toxins shows Putin for the amateur that he is, but also shows him struggling with an internal conflict. He wants his victims dead, but he cannot resolve whether he wants to kill them secretly and privately, or whether he wants the poison to make it clear that he is the killer and is behind the assassination of each person as the victims fall ill.

The botched poisoning of Viktor Yuschenko dramatized the incompetence that sometimes attends Putin’s attempts to poison for political purposes. However, rather than learning from this, the keystone cops theme expanded with the 2006 poisoning and eventual assassination of Alexander Litvinenko using the powerful radioactive alpha-emitter Polonium 210. In terms of the selection of the poison, this was a much more lethal and effective agent when compared to dioxin. Putin had been in power for 6 years, and must have felt secure enough to turn to the Kremlin’s secretive research institutes for poisoner’s advice. Polonium 210 is an almost ideal radioactive poison. Almost a pure alpha particle emitter, it cannot be detected inside a simple glass vial by conventional radiation detectors. It is estimated to be up to one trillion times more toxic that hydrogen cyanide, also known as prussic acid and the favored poison from more than one hundred years earlier. Once Litvinenko ingested the few micrograms of radioactive metal that killed him, his own body was sufficient to absorb almost all of the emitted radiation, and at first his doctors did not think he had radiation poisoning.

Polonium-210

Litvinenko was poisoned in a London sushi shop where he sipped the fatal dose of Polonium 210 in a cup of tea. The FSB agents Andrei Lugovoi and Dmitri Kovtun who carried out the assassination had already left a trail of radiation in the airliner which carried them from Moscow through Berlin to London. They had spilled it in their hotel room and sopped it up with a bath towel. Lugovoi accidently contaminated a strip club and a soccer stadium that he visited on the same trip, and a flat where he stayed in Hamburg, Germany. Due to its unique half life, unusual trace impurities, and the scarcity of nuclear facilities in the world capable of purifying it, the source of the Polonium 210 was directly traced to the Russian nuclear complex in Sarov, about a day’s drive from Moscow.

So while Polonium 210 brought Putin an extremely effective agent, it once again foiled any attempt at secrecy, as it practically fingerprinted Russia, his regime, and him personally as having plotted and carried out the murder.

This brings us to the much more recent and sensational poisonings of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in the town of Salisbury, England, and then the additional accidental poisonings of Charles Rowley and Dawn Sturgess, who blundered into residues of the poison used on the Skirpals in a discarded perfume bottle 4 months later. The poisonings first came to the attention of police on March 4, 2018 when the Skripals were noticed slumped over and unconscious on a public bench. These attacks represented the first open use of an advanced class of nerve gas agents specifically designed as chemical warfare agents in Russia before the collapse of the Soviet Union, called the Novichoks or “Newcomers.”

Novichok-234.JPGThis most recent application of chemical weapons for political ends by Vladimir Putin was my inspiration for writing this blog post, since my company Cayman Chemical has a deep working knowledge of the target of these agents, the essential neuronal enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter of the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling many aspects of conscious activity including the activation of the heart, diaphragm and voluntary muscles. AChE acts to terminate these signals so that the system can return to a resting state. Simply put, AChE allows you the delicate motor control to breath in, then out, and to scratch your nose without punching yourself in the face. If AChE is inhibited or blocked, uncontrolled muscular contractions and spasms lead to cardiac and respiratory arrest, and death from circulatory and respiratory collapse soon follows.

ache together

Sarin and other classical chemical warfare agents, as well as the advanced Novichok agents deployed in the UK, all act by irreversibly inhibiting AChE, reacting with a critical serine residue in the AChE active site with displacement of the fluorine and formation of an enzyme-phosphonate ester.

sarin

Many years ago, we at Cayman Chemical were introducing research tools for inhibiting a different enzyme when we prepared the compound MAFP, shown below. This compound is a potent, selective inhibitor of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that releases free arachidonic acid in response to cell signalling in inflammation. The mechanism is precisely the same as a nerve agent, in that the MAFP molecule irreversibly binds to an active site serine in cPLA2 and forms a phosphonate ester by displacement of fluoride.

mafp

At the time, we were concerned that this compound might be dangerous, so we performed an LD50 study in mice (unpublished) and found that mice survived the highest dose of 10mg/kg. This and other binding data indicated that MAFP was selectively targeting the cPLA2 enzyme and was not binding to the AChE enzyme as the nerve agents do.

As we look to the future, expect Putin to continue to try to perfect his poisoning as he remains plagued by performance issues with both his toxins and his FSB subordinates.* Look also for further refinement of the Novichok agents, as they proved much too stable, and ironically killed only one of three non-targeted, accidental victims several months after the unsuccessful assassination attempt on the Skirpals. All fluorophosphonates, whether they be pesticides, research tools, or chemical warfare agents, have three functional domains as illustrated below. Improvements could be made to both the enabler and guide, making a newer Novichok evaporate more quickly, polymerize and degrade on environmental exposure, be more difficult to prep for mass spec analysis, and not hang around for 3 months in a perfume bottle. Just sayin’, Vlad.

warhead

CCC.JPG

This brings me to the conclusion of my first blog post for 2019, which will be a remarkable year by any measure. The use of chemical warfare agents should be unheard of, as proscribed in the Geneva Convention, but instead their use sometime in the new year seems likely. Russia and its ally Assad have made them a standard military option in the Syrian civil war, and North Korea joined Putin last year in favoring nerve agents as a method of silencing opposition leaders. The heads of state in some of the most powerful countries in the world seem quite unqualified for such a position. In the United State, we have an ignorant, narcissistic, compulsive liar as our president, who seems likely to ignite conflicts through his sheer stupidity and incompetence. In Russia we have a megalomaniac serial killer who experiments on citizens of other countries with his super-poisons and Machiavellian schemes for world dominance. Strangely, even Great Britain, attacked within the last 12 months, continues to welcome Putin’s attendance at global strategic summits such as the recently concluded G-20 meeting in Argentina. The coordinated public shaming, shunning, and eventual removal from power of Vladimir Putin is the only safe and reliable antidote to any of Putin’s Poisons.

aaaDDD.JPG

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New paper provides no evidence that polar bears ate whale carcasses to survive Eemian interglacial

The scientific press is increasingly publishing baseless speculation mixed together with actual research papers including data and experiments. Such speculative papers usually have a blatantly political message which seeks to shroud itself under the cloak of Science, when in fact ithis cannot justifiably be done.

polarbearscience

Contrary to what the misleading press release implies, an entirely speculative new paper by polar bear specialists Kristin Laidre and Ian Stirling (among others) presents zero evidence that polar bear consumed whale carcasses during the last warm Interglacial (Eemian, ca. 115-130kya). And contrary to the impression that Eemian conditions were very challenging for polar bears, simulations from the single paleo sea ice simulation paper these authors cite show the ice-free season over most of the Eemian was less severe than today in the polar basin, with no reason for polar bears to scavenge extensively on large whale carcasses.

LaidreFEE_Wrangel Island scavenging_smaller Polar bears are shown scavenging on the carcass of a dead bowhead whale that washed ashore on Wrangel Island, Russia. Credit: Chris Collins/Heritage Expeditions

This is yet another paper posing as science co-authored by Stirling that uses anecdotal accounts of behaviour to send a message about evolutionary capabilities of polar bears (Stirling…

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Saturated Fatty Acids

This is a great blog – etymology allows you to follow thousands of years of unguided, random history and find it all preserved in the words you’ve always been saying.

Chemtymology

Before chemists had a detailed understanding of molecular structure, newly discovered chemicals were named on the whims of the discoverers. By the end of the 19th century the number of organic molecules known to science had started to increase dramatically, and the list of unconnected names that had to be remembered was getting longer and longer. It became apparent that this mess had to be sorted out, and the process of developing the systematic naming conventions that we have today began. However, despite being less descriptive, many of the old names are retained in the language today and referred to as trivial or common names.

Saturated fatty acids are a good example of a class of compounds where the systematic names are quite simple and easy to remember, being generally based on the Greek for the number of carbons, but common/trivial names are often used preferentially. This balance of use…

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Untangling the March for Science

If there was a single cartoon that captured the essence of the “March for Science”, this was it.

Sciencemarch.PNG

The image of a sanctimonious Bill Nye grinning approvingly over some gender studies nonsense, while the true icons of science look down from heaven in horror and disbelief – that was priceless. I actually do make my living practicing science, but more important, I structure my life by practicing science. I know the difference between science and politics – and this march wasn’t about science.

 

Climate Etc.

by Judith Curry

Pondering some thorny issues regarding science, its place in society and its relationship to politics.

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Activism and the Academy

Is this really necessary?

Is this really necessary?

I am a member of a thing I call the Academy. It is a club, but without any roster, dues, or membership requirement – other than a preoccupation with science. It is non-exclusive, without judgment of any kind with respect to wealth, race, sex, creed, or place of origin. It owns no property, has no location, but it manifests itself continuously and repetitively in a thing called the scientific research conference. These meetings are something like the fruiting events of a slime mold, where thousands of fully separate and individual organisms (in this case humans, rather than amoeboids) come together and form a brief coalition with a specific goal, protocol, duration, and set of organizing principles.

The Academy convenes spontaneously whenever a topic within a discipline becomes of such current impact and importance that a critical mass of Academy members feels compelled to organize. In an ad hoc fashion, with funds begged and borrowed, a venue is located and a set of speakers selected and invited, and the Academy prepares to convene. While I have never witnessed a more tolerant and inclusive body, the Academy is still a meritocracy. No one travels thousands of miles to hear a bumbling fool who knows less than they do butcher a scientific subject. The speakers who are invited to present at a conference are typically and reliably the best in their field, irrespective of any other identifier. It’s like the NBA, only you substitute scientific mastery and communication for 3-pointer percentage and slam dunks. You go to a Cavs game to see Labron-caliber basketball, and you go to a Genomics meeting to hear Doudna-caliber science. Inclusion ratios are just an incidental finding.

Meetings of the Academy move forward under a strict but informal protocol that extends beyond the stipulation that you will not be invited to speak unless you are well established in your field and have clearly contributed novel discoveries to human knowledge. The academy will listen quietly and politely while you state your case and present your findings. They will openly challenge you and question you immediately thereafter but in an orderly fashion. Name calling and politics are considered gauche and are not tolerated, nor are personal, ad hominem, appeal to consensus, or all other manner of false reasoning attacks.

I value my membership in and the existence of the Academy more than any other single thing in my professional life. More than the diploma that I earned from the University of Michigan School of Medicine that hangs on my office wall; more than the small stack of peer reviewed, pre-printed articles with my name on them that I keep in my desk drawer. (Yes, I came of age in the time when articles were snail-mailed between colleagues because email had not yet been invented.) I value it because it just allowed me to be present last week in a beautiful setting in Lake Tahoe and to hear Robert Murphy from the University of Colorado describe the histologic visualization of brain tissue using laser desorption mass spec imaging of phospholipids.

From there, I flew to La Jolla where I learned from Dr. Razelle Kurzrock about precision cancer therapy and the genomic biopsy of breast cancer from human blood.

Kurzrock Presentation 1

I also listened to Carl Zimmer and Ed Yong, who like me are accepted and included in the Academy despite the fact that they have no new, original research to present when they arrive.

Yong 2

The Academy welcomes curiosity, a genuine interest in the truth, and a willingness to act as a conduit of that truth to the greater public. When I returned home, I added my participant’s badges from these meetings to a drawer containing literally hundreds of other icons of my past participation in a coming together of the members of the Academy in a civil and respectful fashion for the benefit of all of science. It is simply the best thing a civil society and a democracy can manifest, this utterly free and collegial exchange of knowledge and ideas, replete with remarks, retorts, and pointed questions that challenge the data, the models, and every other intellectual aspect of the topic up for discussion.

In spite of what I’ve just written, I absolutely dread what seems to be on the agenda for the next convention of the Academy, organized under the hashtag of #ScienceMarch. To begin with, there is something fundamentally wrong with the calling card for this convention. Conferences of scientists take place inauspiciously and quietly, in near seclusion, for a very good reason—because science is about thought, logic, and reason, and those activities tend to be degraded by noise, agitation, and political posturing. Rather than bringing together the best science has to offer, this conference seems to be dominated by those whose science is a bit dodgy. This convention has no coherent topic but seems to be simultaneously about dozens of purely political issues that science cannot un-complicate or reduce to some artificial policy-defined certainty.

The world does need to pay attention to scientists but not because we yell more loudly than some other special interest group—the world needs to value us because we invent things, correct things, and reveal past errors in our fundamental understanding. #ScienceMarch seems to be an immature, self-important shriek for attention. Scientists offer a way to a better tomorrow, as we have for centuries, bringing to humanity vaccines, antibiotics, computers, MRI scans, and millions of other clear advances in our well being. We inform the world when a species is suffering and in danger of disappearing from the earth as only those properly trained and practicing wildlife ecology are prepared and competent to do.

An argument has been put forward that this street protest is necessary, because those we have elected to political power do not properly respect us and our carefully accumulated evidence. This is an obvious reference to the Trump administration’s disdain for climate and immunization science. I have covered those two very different topics elsewhere, and they are important, but the hard truth is that simply by ignoring science, this administration has committed no crime. Nor have they discovered anything novel. Every president I can think of since Nixon, including Obama, viewed science cynically and manipulatively, to be supported, misquoted, and prostituted only when it helped their particular politics.

So how do I imagine the #ScienceMarch will go? In a word—badly. We are visually a very odd and identifiable group living in an age of unusual intolerance and bigotry. We have allowed a small clique of self-serving politically frenzied climatologists tarnish our scientific integrity with their outlandish claims of impending disaster and ecosystem collapse that never happens. This is the political faction who have been so rudely ejected from their positions of power by the election of Donald Trump, and this street protest seems primarily to be a knee jerk tantrum at this abrupt loss of status. Do scientists suppose that if we behave like a bunch of striking transit workers out to protect our cushy union jobs, we’re going to get more respect, not less? It seems more likely to me that those in power will notice how many of us seem to have gotten here on a VISA and will try to tighten that process beyond its current ridiculous restrictions. They will notice that we are well paid and generally live stimulating, comfortable lives and will lobby for cuts in government research spending, salaries, and graduate stipends. (Note the proposed $1.2 billion NIH budget cut.) In the worst case, there will be more violence against identifiable, highly-intelligent minority victims such as Srinivas Kuchibhotla in Kansas City.

It’s hard to deny that America is in a state of political turmoil. We have elected as president a stupid man who believes he is smart, and the reflections of his ignorance and mendacity are radiating out through the executive branch of our government. Truth, forever the domain and highest object of science, is in short supply in the age of alternative facts. It is not as if we have never had as president a dishonest, paranoid, and criminally inclined person, as we did with Richard Nixon. I remember well the night when Nixon fired Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor who was following his nose closer and closer to the White House as he investigated the Watergate break in. That was the night I took to the streets myself, not as a scientist with a lab coat on, demanding more attention for myself or my profession, but as an outraged student protester who was determined to end the corruption infecting the highest office in the land. The music of that earlier time was of the Byrds singing “To Everything There is a Season.” That night, it was time.

If this protest is really about impeaching the president, then let that legal process proceed according to the constitution. If Trump abrogates it in the manner that Nixon tried to do, then a protest march by all Americans may become justified.  America has a lot of special interest groups. Do we really need a new, political entity defined only by the generality of “We study things?” What we really need is the calm, measured, self-critical voice of real science. This is the science that lives in the Academy. I worry that it will suffer a gruesome death in the street protest environment.

I’m frankly very torn as to what to do on April 22. Many of my friends will be taking part in protests organized by #ScienceMarch. I may join them, for a time, strictly as a scientist, to observe what is happening and see whether we, as scientists, have any business out on the street.  I hope that what I will see is the Academy asserting its true principles, as I have tried to describe them so far. I hope that what I don’t see is that we are on the verge of abandoning them.

 

 

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